Herbs/Forbs

Herbaceous plants ("herbs") are vascular plants without significant woody tissue above or at the ground and include flowering plants, ferns, horsetails, lycopods, and whisk-ferns. They may be annual, biennial, or perennial but always lack significant thickening by secondary woody growth and have perennating buds borne at or below the ground surface. Forbs are non-graminoid (grasses, sedges, rushes, etc.) herbaceous plants and represent a guild of plant species with broadly similar growth form, which in ecology is often more important than taxonomic relationship. The following species have been reported to be invasive in natural areas in the U.S. Species native to the U.S. are included when they are invasive in areas well outside their known natural ranges, as a result of human activities. For more information on each species, including the listing sources, images, and distribution maps, click on the species.

566 Species

Subject Name Scientific Name Family U.S. Nativity
small broomrape Orobanche minor Smith Orobanchaceae Exotic
alligatorweed Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. Amaranthaceae Exotic
giant salvinia Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell Salviniaceae Exotic
Canada thistle Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Asteraceae Exotic
garlic mustard Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande Brassicaceae Exotic
giant reed Arundo donax L. Poaceae Exotic
musk thistle Carduus nutans L. Asteraceae Exotic
spotted knapweed Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek Asteraceae Exotic
purple crown-vetch Securigera varia (L.) Lassen Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
air-potato Dioscorea bulbifera L. Dioscoreaceae Exotic
common teasel Dipsacus fullonum L. Dipsacaceae Exotic
ground ivy Glechoma hederacea L. Lamiaceae Exotic
hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle Hydrocharitaceae Exotic
ivyleaf morningglory Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. Convolvulaceae Exotic
shrubby lespedeza Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
sericea lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria L. Lythraceae Exotic
marsh dayflower Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz. Commelinaceae Exotic
parrotfeather Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. Haloragaceae Exotic
Eurasian water-milfoil Myriophyllum spicatum L. Haloragaceae Exotic
brittleleaf naiad Najas minor All. Najadaceae Exotic
Japanese pachysandra Pachysandra terminalis Sieb. & Zucc. Buxaceae Exotic
water lettuce Pistia stratiotes L. Araceae Native
lesser celandine, fig buttercup Ficaria verna Huds. Ranunculaceae Exotic
common chickweed Stellaria pallida (Dumort.) Crépin Caryophyllaceae Exotic
common mullein Verbascum thapsus L. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
common periwinkle Vinca minor L. Apocynaceae Exotic
cypress spurge Euphorbia cyparissias L. Euphorbiaceae Exotic
bull thistle Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Asteraceae Exotic
Black dog-strangling vine, black swallowwort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench Asclepiadaceae Exotic
spiny plumeless thistle Carduus acanthoides L. Asteraceae Exotic
leafy spurge Euphorbia esula L. Euphorbiaceae Exotic
tawny daylily Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. Liliaceae Exotic
purple deadnettle Lamium purpureum L. Lamiaceae Exotic
perilla mint Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton Lamiaceae Exotic
Japanese knotweed Fallopia japonica (Houttuyn) Ronse-Decraene Polygonaceae Exotic
sisal Agave sisalana Perrine Agavaceae Exotic
prairie sunflower Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. Asteraceae Native
yellow toadflax Linaria vulgaris P. Mill. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
dandelion Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers Asteraceae Native
dog-strangling vine, European swallowwort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopov) Barbarich Asclepiadaceae Exotic
water fern Salvinia minima Baker Salviniaceae Exotic
turkeyberry Solanum torvum Sw. Solanaceae Exotic
field bindweed Convolvulus arvensis L. Convolvulaceae Exotic
meadow knapweed Centaurea moncktonii C. E. Britton[C. jacea X C. nigra] Asteraceae Exotic
Mediterranean sage Salvia aethiopis L. Lamiaceae Exotic
poison-hemlock Conium maculatum L. Apiaceae Exotic
squarrose knapweed Centaurea virgata Lam. Asteraceae Exotic
Russian knapweed Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo Asteraceae Exotic
yellow starthistle Centaurea solstitialis L. Asteraceae Exotic
rush skeletonweed Chondrilla juncea L. Asteraceae Exotic
common St. Johnswort Hypericum perforatum L. Clusiaceae Exotic
common crupina Crupina vulgaris Cass. Asteraceae Exotic
tansy ragwort Senecio jacobaea L. Asteraceae Exotic
slenderflower thistle Carduus tenuiflorus W. Curtis Asteraceae Exotic
mouseear hawkweed Hieracium pilosella L. Asteraceae Exotic
orange hawkweed Hieracium aurantiacum L. Asteraceae Exotic
meadow hawkweed Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. Asteraceae Exotic
sulfur cinquefoil Potentilla recta L. Rosaceae Exotic
Scotch thistle Onopordum acanthium L. Asteraceae Exotic
dalmatian toadflax Linaria dalmatica ssp. dalmatica (L.) P. Mill. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
Italian plumeless thistle Carduus pycnocephalus L. Asteraceae Exotic
blessed milkthistle Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Asteraceae Exotic
diffuse knapweed Centaurea diffusa Lam. Asteraceae Exotic
broomleaf toadflax Linaria genistifolia (L.) P. Mill. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
Chinese yam Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. Dioscoreaceae Exotic
big periwinkle Vinca major L. Apocynaceae Exotic
goatsrue Galega officinalis L. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier Apiaceae Exotic
croftonweed Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H.E. Robins. Asteraceae Exotic
sessile joyweed Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC. Amaranthaceae Exotic
miramar weed Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders. Acanthaceae Exotic
Benghal dayflower Commelina benghalensis L. Commelinaceae Exotic
spiny emex Emex spinosa (Linnaeus) Campdera Polygonaceae Exotic
witchweed Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze Scrophulariaceae Exotic
Dyer's woad Isatis tinctoria L. Brassicaceae Exotic
onionweed Asphodelus fistulosus Linnaeus Liliaceae Exotic
limnophila Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume Scrophulariaceae Exotic
velvetleaf Abutilon theophrasti Medik Malvaceae Exotic
creeping croftonweed Ageratina riparia (Regel) King & H.E. Robins. Asteraceae Native
wild garlic Allium vineale L. Amaryllidaceae Exotic
spiny amaranth Amaranthus spinosus L Amaranthaceae Native
slender amaranth Amaranthus viridis L Amaranthaceae Native
scarlet pimpernel Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U. Manns & A. Anderb. Primulaceae Exotic
stinking chamomile Anthemis cotula L Asteraceae Exotic
oriental vessel fern Angiopteris evecta (J.R. Forst.) Hoffmann Marattiaceae Exotic
wild chervil Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffmann Apiaceae Exotic
absinth wormwood Artemisia absinthium L. Asteraceae Exotic
capeweed Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns Asteraceae Exotic
common burdock Arctium minus Bernh. Asteraceae Exotic
mugwort Artemisia vulgaris L. Asteraceae Exotic
Sprenger's asparagus fern Asparagus aethiopicus L. Liliaceae Exotic
Chinese violet Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anders Acanthaceae Exotic
balloon cottonbush Asclepias physocarpa (E. Mey.) Schlechter Asclepiadaceae Exotic
Australian saltbush Atriplex semibaccata R. Br. Chenopodiaceae Exotic
fivehook bassia Bassia hyssopifolia (Pallas) Kuntz Chenopodiaceae Exotic
yellow rocket Barbarea vulgaris Ait. f. Brassicaceae Exotic
clubed begonia Begonia cucullata Willd Begoniaceae Exotic
hoary alyssum Berteroa incana (L.) DC Brassicaceae Exotic
English daisy Bellis perennis L. Asteraceae Exotic
bellardia Bellardia trixago (L.) All Scrophulariaceae Exotic
spanishneedles Bidens bipinnata L. Asteraceae Native
hairy beggarticks Bidens pilosa L. Asteraceae Exotic
white bryony Bryonia alba L. Cucurbitaceae Exotic
Indian mustard Brassica juncea (L.) Czern Brassicaceae Exotic
black mustard Brassica nigra (L.) W.D.J. Koch Brassicaceae Exotic
birdsrape mustard Brassica rapa L. Brassicaceae Exotic
African mustard Brassica tournefortii Gouan Brassicaceae Exotic
corn gromwell Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnston Boraginaceae Exotic
hare's ear Bupleurum rotundifolium L. Apiaceae Exotic
flowering-rush Butomus umbellatus L. Butomaceae Exotic
shepherd's-purse Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Brassicaceae Exotic
Carolina fanwort Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray Cabombaceae Native
orbicular whitetop Lepidium chalepense L. Brassicaceae Exotic
curly plumeless thistle Carduus crispus L. Asteraceae Exotic
hoary cress Lepidium draba (L.) Desv Brassicaceae Exotic
hottentot fig Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E. Br Aizoaceae Exotic
woolly distaff thistle Carthamus lanatus L. Asteraceae Exotic
smallseed falseflax Camelina microcarpa DC. Brassicaceae Exotic
hairy whitetop Cardaria pubescens (C.A. Mey.) Brassicaceae Exotic
creeping bellflower Campanula rapunculoides L. Campanulaceae Exotic
marijuana Cannabis sativa L Cannabaceae Exotic
purple starthistle Centaurea calcitrapa L. Asteraceae Exotic
cornflower Centaurea cyanus L. Asteraceae Exotic
common mouse-ear chickweed Cerastium fontanum Baumg. Caryophyllaceae Exotic
big chickweed Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare (Hartman) Greuter & Burdet Caryophyllaceae Exotic
brown knapweed Centaurea jacea L. Asteraceae Exotic
bighead knapweed Centaurea macrocephala Puschk. ex Willd. Asteraceae Exotic
Malta starthistle Centaurea melitensis L. Asteraceae Exotic
black knapweed Centaurea nigra L. Asteraceae Exotic
alpine knapweed Centaurea nigrescens Willd Asteraceae Exotic
bur buttercup Ceratocephala testiculata (Crantz) Bess. Ranunculaceae Exotic
lambsquarters Chenopodium album L Chenopodiaceae Exotic
mexicantea Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Chenopodiaceae Exotic
spotted spurge Euphorbia maculata (L.) Small Euphorbiaceae Native
nettleleaf goosefoot Chenopodium murale L. Chenopodiaceae Exotic
giantseed goosefoot Chenopodium simplex (Torr.) Raf. Chenopodiaceae Native
blue mustard Chorispora tenella (Pallas) DC. Brassicaceae Exotic
chicory Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae Exotic
garden cosmos Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Asteraceae Exotic
hairy fleabane Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist Asteraceae Exotic
horseweed Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. Asteraceae Native
Asiatic dayflower Commelina communis L. Commelinaceae Exotic
lesser swinecress Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm. Brassicaceae Exotic
coco yam, wild taro Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott Araceae Exotic
ivy gourd Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt Cucurbitaceae Exotic
lily of the valley Convallaria majalis L. Liliaceae Exotic
sulphur cosmos Cosmos sulphureus Cav. Asteraceae Exotic
smooth hawksbeard Crepis capillaris (L.) Wallr Asteraceae Exotic
showy rattlebox Crotalaria spectabilis Roth Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
narrowleaf hawksbeard Crepis tectorum L. Asteraceae Exotic
smallseed alfalfa dodder Cuscuta approximata Bab. Cuscutaceae Exotic
clover dodder Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L. Cuscutaceae Exotic
Japanese dodder Cuscuta japonica Choisy Cuscutaceae Exotic
cardoon Cynara cardunculus L. Asteraceae Exotic
houndstongue Cynoglossum officinale L. Boraginaceae Exotic
Queen Anne's lace, wild carrot Daucus carota L. Apiaceae Exotic
jimsonweed Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae Exotic
cape ivy Delairea odorata Lem Asteraceae Exotic
Japanese false spleenwort Deparia petersenii (Kunze) M. Kato Dryopteridaceae Exotic
flixweed Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl Brassicaceae Exotic
winged yam Dioscorea alata L. Dioscoreaceae Exotic
Deptford pink Dianthus armeria L. Caryophyllaceae Exotic
Fuller's teasel Dipsacus fullonum ssp. sylvestris (Huds.) Clapham Dipsacaceae Exotic
cutleaf teasel Dipsacus laciniatus L. Dipsacaceae Exotic
foxglove Digitalis purpurea L. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
Fuller's teasel Dipsacus sativus (L.) Honckeny Dipsacaceae Exotic
spring whitlowgrass Draba verna L. Brassicaceae Exotic
eclipta Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. Asteraceae Native
common viper's bugloss Echium vulgare L. Boraginaceae Exotic
hairy willowherb Epilobium hirsutum L. Onagraceae Exotic
redstem filaree Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Hér. ex Ait. Geraniaceae Exotic
cutleaf burnweed Erechtites glomeratus (Desf. ex Poir.) DC. Asteraceae Exotic
Australian burnweed Erechtites minimus (Poir.) DC Asteraceae Exotic
California poppy Eschscholzia californica Cham Papaveraceae Native
eggleaf spurge Euphorbia oblongata Griseb Euphorbiaceae Exotic
mulberryweed Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai Moraceae Exotic
fennel Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill. Apiaceae Exotic
Mauritius hemp Furcraea foetida (L.) Haw Agavaceae Exotic
purple cudweed Gamochaeta purpurea (L.) Cabrera Asteraceae Native
hairy galinsoga Galinsoga quadriradiata Cav Asteraceae Exotic
cutleaf geranium Geranium dissectum L. Geraniaceae Exotic
babysbreath Gypsophila paniculata L Caryophyllaceae Exotic
halogeton Halogeton glomeratus (Bieb.) C.A. Mey. Chenopodiaceae Exotic
Texas blueweed Helianthus ciliaris DC. Asteraceae Native
white garland-lily Hedychium coronarium Koenig Zingiberaceae Exotic
cream garland-lily Hedychium flavescens Carey ex Roscoe Zingiberaceae Exotic
Kahila garland-lily Hedychium gardnerianum Shepard ex Ker-Gawl. Zingiberaceae Exotic
dames rocket Hesperis matronalis L. Brassicaceae Exotic
Canadian hawkweed Hieracium canadense Michx. Asteraceae Native
Venice mallow Hibiscus trionum L. Malvaceae Exotic
black henbane Hyoscyamus niger L. Solanaceae Exotic
hairy cat's ear Hypochaeris radicata L. Asteraceae Exotic
red morningglory Ipomoea coccinea L. Convolvulaceae Exotic
tievine Ipomoea cordatotriloba var. cordatotriloba Dennst. Convolvulaceae Native
pitted morningglory Ipomoea lacunosa L. Convolvulaceae Native
yellow iris Iris pseudacorus L. Iridaceae Exotic
cathedral bells Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. Crassulaceae Exotic
Mexican fireweed Kochia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott Chenopodiaceae Exotic
Korean lespedeza Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
common lespedeza Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
henbit Lamium amplexicaule L. Lamiaceae Exotic
nipplewort Lapsana communis L. Asteraceae Exotic
everlasting peavine Lathyrus latifolius L. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
prickly lettuce Lactuca serriola L. Asteraceae Exotic
motherwort Leonurus cardiaca L. Lamiaceae Exotic
lepyrodiclis Lepyrodiclis holosteoides (C.A. Mey.) Fenzl ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Caryophyllaceae Exotic
perennial pepperweed Lepidium latifolium L. Brassicaceae Exotic
clasping pepperweed Lepidium perfoliatum L. Brassicaceae Exotic
Virginia pepperweed Lepidium virginicum L. Brassicaceae Native
oxeye daisy Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. Asteraceae Exotic
Dalmatian toadflax Linaria dalmatica (L.) P. Mill. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
birdsfoot trefoil Lotus corniculatus L. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
creeping waterprimrose Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) Raven Onagraceae Native
hyssop loosestrife Lythrum hyssopifolia L. Lythraceae Exotic
creeping yellow loosestrife, creeping Jenney Lysimachia nummularia L. Primulaceae Exotic
European wand loosestrife Lythrum virgatum L. Lythraceae Exotic
garden loosestrife Lysimachia vulgaris L. Primulaceae Exotic
pineapple-weed Matricaria discoidea DC. Asteraceae Exotic
common mallow Malva neglecta Wallr. Malvaceae Exotic
coast tarweed Madia sativa Molina Asteraceae Native
white horehound Marrubium vulgare L. Lamiaceae Exotic
crystalline iceplant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. Aizoaceae Exotic
black medic Medicago lupulina L. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
yellow sweet-clover Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
peppermint Mentha x piperita L. (pro sp.) Lamiaceae Exotic
California burclover Medicago polymorpha L. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
pennyroyal Mentha pulegium L. Lamiaceae Exotic
spearmint Mentha spicata L. Lamiaceae Exotic
wild four-o'clock Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacM. Nyctaginaceae Native
miniature beefsteakplant Mosla dianthera (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Maxim. Lamiaceae Exotic
common grape hyacinth Muscari botryoides (L.) P. Mill. Liliaceae Exotic
starch grape hyacinth Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Ten. Liliaceae Exotic
true forget-me-not Myosotis scorpioides L. Boraginaceae Exotic
catnip Nepeta cataria L. Lamiaceae Exotic
narrow swordfern Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl Dryopteridaceae Exotic
Asian swordfern Nephrolepis brownii (Desv.) Hovenkamp & Miyam. Dryopteridaceae Exotic
perennial soybean Neonotonia wightii (Wight & Arn.) Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
apple-of-Peru Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. Solanaceae Exotic
cutleaf evening-primrose Oenothera laciniata Hill Onagraceae Native
foxtail restharrow Ononis alopecuroides L. Fabaceae (Leguminosae)
star-of-Bethlehem Ornithogalum umbellatum L. Liliaceae Exotic
yellow woodsorrel Oxalis stricta L. Oxalidaceae Native
wild parsnip Pastinaca sativa L. Apiaceae Exotic
African rue Peganum harmala L. Zygophyllaceae Exotic
common pokeweed Phytolacca americana L. Phytolaccaceae Native
New Zealand flax Phormium tenax J.R. & G. Forst. Xanthorrhoeaceae Exotic
chamber bitter Phyllanthus urinaria L. Euphorbiaceae Exotic
hawkweed oxtongue Picris hieracioides L. Asteraceae Exotic
Indian camphorweed Pluchea indica (L.) Less. Asteraceae Exotic
buckhorn plantain Plantago lanceolata L. Plantaginaceae Exotic
broadleaf plantain Plantago major L. Plantaginaceae Exotic
Oriental lady's thumb Persicaria longiseta (Bruijn) Kitagawa Polygonaceae Exotic
wild buckwheat Fallopia convolvulus L. Polygonaceae Exotic
curly-leaved pondweed Potamogeton crispus L. Potamogetonaceae Exotic
pale smartweed Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) S.F. Gray Polygonaceae Native
common purslane Portulaca oleracea L. Portulacaceae Exotic
princess-feather Persicaria orientalis (L.) Spach Polygonaceae Exotic
ladysthumb Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gray Polygonaceae Exotic
cultivated knotweed Persicaria wallichii Greuter & Burdet Polygonaceae Exotic
giant knotweed Fallopia sachalinensis (F. Schmidt) Ronse-Decraene Polygonaceae Exotic
common selfheal Prunella vulgaris L. Lamiaceae Native
ladder brake Pteris vittata L. Pteridaceae Exotic
tall buttercup Ranunculus acris L. Ranunculaceae Exotic
bulbous buttercup Ranunculus bulbosus L. Ranunculaceae Exotic
wild radish Raphanus raphanistrum L. Brassicaceae Exotic
creeping buttercup Ranunculus repens L. Ranunculaceae Exotic
radish Raphanus sativus L. Brassicaceae Exotic
Austrian fieldcress Rorippa austriaca (Crantz) Bess. Brassicaceae Exotic
red sorrel Rumex acetosella L. Polygonaceae Exotic
Britton's wild petunia Ruellia simplex C. Wright Acanthaceae Exotic
curly dock Rumex crispus L. Polygonaceae Exotic
curly dock Rumex crispus ssp. crispus L. Polygonaceae Exotic
broadleaf dock Rumex obtusifolius L. Polygonaceae Exotic
slender Russian thistle Salsola collina Pallas Chenopodiaceae Exotic
iguanatail Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce Liliaceae Exotic
Russian thistle Salsola kali L. Chenopodiaceae Exotic
bouncingbet Saponaria officinalis L. Caryophyllaceae Exotic
barbwire Russian-thistle Salsola paulsenii Litv. Chenopodiaceae Exotic
Russian-thistle Salsola tragus L. Chenopodiaceae Exotic
bigpod sesbania Sesbania herbacea (P. Mill.) McVaugh Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Native
sicklepod Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Native
coffee senna Senna occidentalis (L.) Link Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
common groundsel Senecio vulgaris L. Asteraceae Exotic
tumble mustard Sisymbrium altissimum L. Brassicaceae Exotic
wild mustard Sinapis arvensis L. Brassicaceae Exotic
London rocket Sisymbrium irio L. Brassicaceae Exotic
bladder campion Silene latifolia ssp. alba (Mill.) Greuter & Burdet Caryophyllaceae Exotic
hedge mustard Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. Brassicaceae Exotic
bladder campion Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke Caryophyllaceae Exotic
perennial sowthistle Sonchus arvensis L. Asteraceae Exotic
field sowthistle Sonchus arvensis ssp. arvensis L. Asteraceae Exotic
spiny sowthistle Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Asteraceae Exotic
twoleaf nightshade Solanum diphyllum L. Solanaceae Exotic
black nightshade Solanum nigrum L. Solanaceae Exotic
annual sowthistle Sonchus oleraceus L. Asteraceae Exotic
hairy nightshade Solanum physalifolium Rusby Solanaceae Exotic
cutleaf nightshade Solanum triflorum Nutt. Solanaceae Native
swainsonpea Sphaerophysa salsula (Pallas) DC. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
Bay Biscayne creeping-oxeye Sphagneticola trilobata (L.C. Rich.) Pruski Asteraceae Exotic
Florida betony Stachys floridana Shuttlw. ex Benth. Lamiaceae Native
wild marigold Tagetes minuta L. Asteraceae Exotic
common tansy Tanacetum vulgare L. Asteraceae Exotic
incised halberd fern Tectaria incisa Cav. Dryopteridaceae Exotic
field pennycress Thlaspi arvense L. Brassicaceae Exotic
spreading hedgeparsley Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link Apiaceae Exotic
spreading hedgeparsley Torilis arvensis ssp. arvensis (Huds.) Link Apiaceae Exotic
rabbitfoot clover Trifolium arvense L. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
large hop clover Trifolium campestre Schreb. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
western salsify Tragopogon dubius Scop. Asteraceae Exotic
white-flowered spiderwort Tradescantia fluminensis Vell. Commelinaceae Exotic
false chamomile Tripleurospermum perforatum (Merat) M. Lainz Asteraceae Exotic
white clover Trifolium repens L. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
Sacramento burrbark Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq. Tiliaceae Native
boatlily Tradescantia spathacea Sw. Commelinaceae Exotic
coltsfoot Tussilago farfara L. Asteraceae Exotic
Caesarweed Urena lobata L. Malvaceae Exotic
common valerian Valeriana officinalis L. Valerianaceae Exotic
corn speedwell Veronica arvensis L. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
twolobe speedwell Veronica biloba L. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
moth mullein Verbascum blattaria L. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
crownbeard Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Gray Asteraceae Native
common vetch Vicia sativa Linnaeus Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
sparrow vetch Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreb. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
hairy vetch Vicia villosa Roth Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
spiny cocklebur Xanthium spinosum L. Asteraceae Exotic
common cocklebur Xanthium strumarium L. Asteraceae Native
Syrian beancaper Zygophyllum fabago L. Zygophyllaceae Exotic
Brazilian vervain Verbena incompta P. W. Michael Verbenaceae Exotic
lettuce Lactuca sativa L. Asteraceae Exotic
knapweeds Centaurea spp. L. Asteraceae
woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca L. Rosaceae Native
tall morningglory Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth Convolvulaceae Exotic
carpet bugle Ajuga reptans L. Lamiaceae Exotic
thymeleaf sandwort Arenaria serpyllifolia L. Caryophyllaceae Exotic
piedmont bedstraw Cruciata pedemontana (Bellardi) Ehrend. Rubiaceae Exotic
Indian mock-strawberry Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke Rosaceae Exotic
Thunberg lespedeza Lespedeza thunbergii (DC.) Nakai Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
Mascarene Island leaf-flower Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. Euphorbiaceae Exotic
tall vervain Verbena bonariensis L. Verbenaceae Exotic
ivyleaf speedwell Veronica hederifolia L. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
basketplant Callisia fragrans (Lindl.) Woods Commelinaceae Exotic
arrowleaf elephant's ear Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott Araceae Exotic
little mallow Malva parviflora L. Malvaceae Exotic
hollyhock Alcea rosea L. Malvaceae Exotic
Asiatic hawksbeard Youngia japonica (L.) DC. Asteraceae Exotic
goutweed Aegopodium podagraria L. Apiaceae Exotic
narrowleaf bittercress Cardamine impatiens L. Brassicaceae Exotic
carline thistle Carlina vulgaris L. Asteraceae Exotic
boreal chickweed Cerastium tomentosum L. Caryophyllaceae Exotic
greater celandine Chelidonium majus L. Papaveraceae Exotic
smooth bedstraw Cruciata laevipes Opiz Rubiaceae Exotic
slender snakecotton Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq. Amaranthaceae Native
smooth bedstraw Galium mollugo L. Rubiaceae Exotic
smallflower galinsoga Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Asteraceae Exotic
yellow bedstraw Galium verum L. Rubiaceae Exotic
longstalk cranesbill Geranium columbinum L. Geraniaceae Exotic
yellow daylily Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus L. Liliaceae Exotic
spotted deadnettle Lamium maculatum L. Lamiaceae Exotic
creeping liriope Liriope spicata (Thunb.) Lour. Liliaceae Exotic
Chinese lobelia Lobelia chinensis Lour. Campanulaceae Exotic
meadow campion Silene flos-cuculi (L.) Clairv. Caryophyllaceae Exotic
giant chickweed Myosoton aquaticum (L.) Moench Caryophyllaceae Exotic
Morison's spurry Spergula morisonii Boreau Caryophyllaceae Exotic
rock dandelion Taraxacum laevigatum (Willd.) DC. Asteraceae Exotic
meadow salsify Tragopogon lamottei L. Asteraceae Exotic
hop clover Trifolium aureum Pollich Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
small hop clover Trifolium dubium Sibthorp Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
red clover Trifolium pratense L. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
European speedwell Veronica beccabunga L. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
thymeleaf speedwell Veronica serpyllifolia L. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
monkeygrass Liriope muscari (Dcne.) Bailey Liliaceae Exotic
beach wormwood Artemisia stelleriana Bess. Asteraceae Exotic
heather Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull Ericaceae Exotic
woodland forget-me-not Myosotis sylvatica Ehrh. ex Hoffmann Boraginaceae Exotic
herb bennet Geum urbanum L. Rosaceae Exotic
sweetscented bedstraw Galium odoratum (L.) Scop. Rubiaceae Exotic
helleborine Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz Orchidaceae Exotic
elecampane Inula helenium L. Asteraceae Exotic
herb-robert Geranium robertianum L. Geraniaceae Exotic
kingdevil hawkweed Hieracium piloselloides Vill. Asteraceae Exotic
annual yellow sweetclover Melilotus indicus (L.) All. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
Japanese hedge-parsley Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC. Apiaceae Exotic
water speedwell Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. Scrophulariaceae Native
crested latesummer mint Elsholtzia ciliata (Thunb.) Hyl. Lamiaceae Exotic
Thunberg's geranium Geranium thunbergii Sieb. & Zucc. ex Lindl. & Paxton Geraniaceae Exotic
European frog-bit Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L. Hydrocharitaceae Exotic
Himalayan balsam Impatiens glandulifera Royle Balsaminaceae Exotic
European water-clover Marsilea quadrifolia L. Marsileaceae Exotic
Geraldton carnation weed Euphorbia terracina L. Euphorbiaceae Exotic
sensitive partridgepea Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Native
American burnweed Erechtites hieraciifolius (L.) Raf. ex DC. Asteraceae Native
tall lettuce Lactuca canadensis L. Asteraceae Native
tiny vetch Vicia hirsuta (L.) S.F. Gray Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Native
wall lettuce Mycelis muralis (L.) Dumort. Asteraceae Exotic
common comfrey Symphytum officinale L. Boraginaceae Exotic
bird vetch Vicia cracca L. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
alsike clover Trifolium hybridum L. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
Asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica (L.) Urban Apiaceae Exotic
field madder Sherardia arvensis L. Rubiaceae Exotic
rough maidenhair fern Adiantum hispidulum Sw. Pteridaceae Exotic
delta maidenhair Adiantum raddianum K. Presl Pteridaceae Exotic
tropic ageratum Ageratum conyzoides L. Asteraceae Native
red ginger Alpinia purpurata (Vieill.) K. Schum. Zingiberaceae Exotic
Italian bugloss Anchusa azurea P. Mill. Boraginaceae Exotic
wild celery Apium graveolens L. Apiaceae Exotic
great burdock Arctium lappa L. Asteraceae Exotic
Italian arum Arum italicum P. Mill. Araceae Exotic
bamboo orchid Arundina graminifolia (D. Don) Hochr. Orchidaceae Exotic
bloodflower milkweed Asclepias curassavica L. Asclepiadaceae Exotic
peregrine saltbush Atriplex suberecta I. Verd. Chenopodiaceae Exotic
scarlet spiderling Boerhavia coccinea P. mill. Nyctaginaceae Native
Indian shot Canna indica L. Cannaceae Exotic
woodland bittercress Cardamine flexuosa With. Brassicaceae Exotic
field Indian paintbrush Castilleja arvensis Cham. & Schlecht Scrophulariaceae Exotic
Madagascar periwinkle Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don Apocynaceae Exotic
European centaury Centaurium erythraea Rafn Gentianaceae Exotic
red valerian Centranthus ruber (L.) DC. Valerianaceae Exotic
garden spurge Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp. Euphorbiaceae Native
clammy goosefoot Dysphania pumilio (R. Br.) Mosyakin & Clemants Chenopodiaceae Exotic
star-mustard Coincya monensis (L.) Greuter & Burdet Brassicaceae Exotic
American bugseed Corispermum americanum var. rydbergii Mosyakin Chenopodiaceae Native
shiny bugseed Corispermum nitidum Kit. ex J.A. Schultes Chenopodiaceae Exotic
canereed Costus speciosus (Koenig) Sm. Costaceae Native
southern brassbuttons Cotula australis (Sieber) Hook. f. Asteraceae Exotic
redflower ragleaf Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore Asteraceae Exotic
tarweed cuphea Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr. Lythraceae Exotic
little ironweed Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.E. Robins. Asteraceae Exotic
threeflower beggarweed Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
Grecian foxglove Digitalis lanata Ehrh. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
heartleaf drymary Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex J.A. Schultes Caryophyllaceae Native
Cupid's-shaving-brush Emilia fosbergii D.H. Nicols. Asteraceae Exotic
lilac tasselflower Emilia sonchifolia var. sonchifolia (L.) DC. Asteraceae Native
Epidendrum ×obrienianum Epidendrum x obrienianum Rolfe [evectum × ibaguense] Orchidaceae Exotic
aboriginal willowherb Epilobium billardierianum ssp. cinereum (A. Rich.) P.H. Raven & Engelhorn Onagraceae Exotic
tropical burnweed Erechtites valerianifolius (Spreng.) DC. Asteraceae Exotic
father-and-child plant Euchiton japonicus (Thunb.) A. Anderb. Asteraceae Exotic
petty spurge Euphorbia peplus L. Euphorbiaceae Exotic
queen-of-the-meadow Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Rosaceae Exotic
cape bugle-lily Watsonia borbonica (Pourret) Goldblatt Iridaceae Exotic
seashore vervain Verbena montevidensis Spreng. Verbenaceae Exotic
common salsify Tragopogon porrifolius L. Asteraceae Exotic
tree marigold Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray Asteraceae Exotic
downy maiden fern Christella dentata (Forssk.) Brownsey & Jermy Thelypteridaceae Native
beach strawberry Fragaria chiloensis (L.) P. Mill. Rosaceae Native
woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca ssp. vesca L. Rosaceae Native
nodeweed Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. Asteraceae Exotic
Jamaica vervain Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl Verbenaceae Native
cayenne porterweed Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl Verbenaceae Exotic
fieldnettle betony Stachys arvensis (L.) L. Lamiaceae Exotic
Philippine ground orchid Spathoglottis plicata Blume Orchidaceae Exotic
currant tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium Jusl. Solanaceae Exotic
oriental mustard Sisymbrium orientale L. Brassicaceae Exotic
English catchfly Silene gallica L. Caryophyllaceae Exotic
common St. Paul's wort Sigesbeckia orientalis L. Asteraceae Exotic
woodland groundsel Senecio sylvaticus L. Asteraceae Exotic
mourningbride Scabiosa atropurpurea L. Dipsacaceae Exotic
Australasian geranium Geranium homeanum Turcz. Geraniaceae Exotic
shining geranium Geranium lucidum L. Geraniaceae Exotic
bluehead gilia Gilia capitata Sims Polemoniaceae Native
telegraph weed Heterotheca grandiflora Nutt. Asteraceae Native
Barbados lily Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Kuntze Liliaceae Exotic
shortpod mustard Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagrèze-Fossat Brassicaceae Exotic
Mexican tulip poppy Hunnemannia fumariifolia Sweet Papaveraceae Exotic
whorled pennywort Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. Apiaceae Native
chandelier plant Kalanchoe delagoensis Ecklon & Zeyh. Crassulaceae Exotic
blue lettuce Lactuca tatarica (L.) C.A. Mey. Asteraceae Native
yellow archangel Lamium galeobdolon (L.) Crantz Lamiaceae Exotic
lesser hawkbit Leontodon saxatilis ssp. saxatilis L. Asteraceae Exotic
narrowleaf dock Rumex stenophyllus Ledeb. Polygonaceae Exotic
amphibious yellowcress Rorippa amphibia (L.) Besser Brassicaceae Exotic
white mignonette Reseda alba L. Resedaceae Exotic
turnipweed Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All. Brassicaceae Exotic
hairy bird's-foot trefoil Lotus subbiflorus Lag. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
waterpurslane Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell. Onagraceae Native
annual honesty Lunaria annua L. Brassicaceae Exotic
swordfern Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Ching Thelypteridaceae Exotic
Malcolm stock Malcolmia africana (L.) Ait. f. Brassicaceae Exotic
Jersey cudweed Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum (L.) Hilliard & Burtt Asteraceae Exotic
dog's-tongue Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss. ex Aubl.) C.F. Baker Asteraceae Exotic
threelobe false mallow Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke Malvaceae Exotic
lemon balm Melissa officinalis L. Lamiaceae Exotic
apple-mint Mentha x villosa Huds. (pro sp.) [spicata × suaveolens] Lamiaceae Exotic
slenderleaf iceplant Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum L. Aizoaceae Exotic
shameplant Mimosa pudica var. unijuga (Duchass. & Walp.) Griseb. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
common four-o'clock Mirabilis jalapa L. Nyctaginaceae Exotic
fishtail swordfern Nephrolepis falcata (Cav.) C. Christens. Dryopteridaceae Exotic
dotted smartweed Persicaria punctata (Ell.) Small Polygonaceae Native
silversheath knotweed Polygonum argyrocoleon Steud. Ex Kunze Polygonaceae Exotic
fourleaf manyseed Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L. Caryophyllaceae Exotic
Mexican plantain Plantago australis Lam. Plantaginaceae Native
Dixie silverback fern Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link Pteridaceae Exotic
redsepal evening-primrose Oenothera glazioviana Micheli Onagraceae Exotic
nodding star-of-Bethlehem Ornithogalum nutans L. Liliaceae Exotic
pink woodsorrel Oxalis debilis var. corymbosa (DC.) Lourteig Oxalidaceae Exotic
yellow glandweed Parentucellia viscosa (L.) Caruel Scrophulariaceae Exotic
artilleryweed Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. Urticaceae Native
Virginia groundcherry Physalis virginiana var. virginiana Mill. Solanaceae Native
parsley Petroselinum crispum (P. Mill.) Nyman ex A.W. Hill Apiaceae Exotic
hairypink Petrorhagia dubia (Raf.) G. López & Romo Caryophyllaceae Exotic
golden polypody Phlebodium aureum (L.) J. Sm. Polypodiaceae Native
monarch fern Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm. f.) Copeland Polypodiaceae Exotic
Japanese chaff flower Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai Amaranthaceae Exotic
alyceclover Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
watercress Nasturtium officinale R. Brown Brassicaceae Exotic
dwarf waterclover Marsilea minuta L. Marsileaceae Exotic
bagpod Sesbania vesicaria (Jacq.) Ell. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Native
Browne's blechum Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urban Acanthaceae Exotic
primrose-willow Ludwigia peruviana (L.) Hara Onagraceae Exotic
Kenilworth ivy Cymbalaria muralis P.G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. Scrophulariaceae Exotic
plumeless thistle Carduus spp. L. Asteraceae Exotic
redhot poker Kniphofia uvaria (L.) Oken Liliaceae Exotic
largeflower Mexican clover Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schlecht.) J.A. & J.H. Schultes Rubiaceae Exotic
water primrose Ludwigia grandiflora ssp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Nesom & Kartesz Onagraceae Exotic
smooth crotalaria Crotalaria pallida Aiton Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
thoroughwort pennycress Microthlaspi perfoliatum (L.) F.K. Mey. Brassicaceae Exotic
African asparagus fern Asparagus asparagoides (L.) Druce Liliaceae Exotic
European sea-rocket Cakile maritima Scop. Brassicaceae Exotic
sea fig Carpobrotus chilensis (Molina) N.E. Br. Aizoaceae Exotic
crowndaisy Glebionis coronaria (L.) Tzvelev Asteraceae Exotic
brassbuttons Cotula coronopifolia L. Asteraceae Exotic
montbretia Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (V. Lemoine) N.E. Br. [aurea × pottsii] Iridaceae Exotic
stinkwort Dittrichia graveolens (L.) W. Greuter Asteraceae Exotic
dotted duckmeat Landoltia punctata (G.F.W. Mey.) D.H. Les & D.J. Crawford Lemnaceae Native
sweet alyssum Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. Brassicaceae Exotic
broadleaf forget-me-not Myosotis latifolia Poir. Boraginaceae Exotic
buttercup oxalis Oxalis pes-caprae L. Oxalidaceae Exotic
bristly oxtongue Helminthotheca echioides (L.) Holub Asteraceae Exotic
oppositeleaf Russian thistle Salsola soda L. Chenopodiaceae Exotic
rose clover Trifolium hirtum All. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
bulbil bugle-lily Watsonia meriana (L.) P. Mill. Iridaceae Exotic
calla lily Zantedeschia aethiopica (L.) Spreng. Araceae Exotic
squarrose knapweed Centaurea virgata ssp. squarrosa Lam. Asteraceae Exotic
garden baby's-breath Gypsophila scorzonerifolia Ser. Caryophyllaceae Exotic
onerow yellowcress Nasturtium microphyllum Boenn. ex Rchb. Brassicaceae Exotic
denseflower knotweed Persicaria glabra (Willd.) M. Gómez Polygonaceae Native
common coleus Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd Lamiaceae Exotic
sowthistle Sonchus spp. L. Asteraceae Exotic
bur chervil Anthriscus caucalis M. Bieb. Apiaceae Exotic
smooth cat's ear Hypochaeris glabra L. Asteraceae Exotic
European stinging nettle Urtica dioica ssp. dioica L. Urticaceae Exotic
rose campion Lychnis coronaria (L.) Desr. Caryophyllaceae Exotic
English violet Viola odorata L. Violaceae Exotic
bear's breech Acanthus mollis L. Acanthaceae Exotic
big trefoil Lotus pedunculatus Cav. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
changing forget-me-not Myosotis discolor Pers. Boraginaceae Exotic
dovefoot geranium Geranium molle L. Geraniaceae Exotic
evergreen bugloss Pentaglottis sempervirens (L.) Tausch ex L.H. Bailey Boraginaceae Exotic
flat peavine Lathyrus sylvestris L. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
floating primrose-willow Ludwigia peploides ssp. montevidensis (Spreng.) P.H. Raven Onagraceae Exotic
Hispanic hyacinthoides Hyacinthoides hispanica (Mill.) Rothm. Liliaceae Exotic
Japanese netvein hollyfern Cyrtomium falcatum (L. f.) C. Presl Dryopteridaceae Exotic
Java waterdropwort Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC. Apiaceae Exotic
lettuce Lactuca spp. N/A Asteraceae
meadow knapweed Centaurea debeauxii Gren. & Godr. [excluded] Asteraceae Exotic
pale flax Linum bienne Mill. Linaceae Exotic
sticky sage Salvia glutinosa L. Lamiaceae Exotic
subterranean clover Trifolium subterraneum L. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
summer snowflake Leucojum aestivum L. Liliaceae Exotic
watermilfoil Myriophyllum spp. N/A Haloragaceae
wild basil Clinopodium vulgare L. Lamiaceae Native
wild bushbean Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Exotic
yellow archangel Lamiastrum galeobdolon (L.) Ehrend. & Polatschek Lamiaceae
lesser hawkbit Leontodon taraxacoides ssp. taraxacoides L. Asteraceae Exotic
sea hibiscus Hibiscus tiliaceus L. Malvaceae Exotic
Eulophia ground orchid Eulophia graminea Lindl. Orchidaceae Exotic