perilla mint USDA PLANTS Symbol: PEFR4
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Forbs/Herbs
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Lamiales: Lamiaceae
Synonym(s): beefsteakplant, Perilla mint, beefsteak, beefsteak mint, Purple mint
Native Range: Himalayas to e. Asia ()

Appearance
Perilla frutescens is an erect, annual freely branching herbaceous plant that grows from 1-6.6 ft. (0.3-2 m) tall. The square stems are villose, purple or green with four parallel grooves. Dried stalks can persist through winter. It is native to Eastern Asia.
Foliage
Opposite leaves are membranous or herbaceous, broadly ovate or orbicular, 2.76-5.12 in. long by 1.77-3.94 in. wide (7-13 cm X 4.5-10 cm), with mucronate tips, a rounded or broad cuneate bases, and dentate margins. The pilose surface of the leaves may be green or purple on both sides. Each leaf has seven to eight pairs of lateral veins, which are closer together near the base. The veins on the upper surface are slightly raised, more so on the underside. The petiole is flat and villose.
Flowers
Flowers are held in pairs along the stalk. The inflorescence is a villose corymb that may grow either terminally or from the leaf axils.
Fruit
The sub-globose fruits are reticulate nutlets, grayish-brown, and are about 0.06 in. (1.5 mm) in diameter.
Ecological Threat
P. frutescens grows along roadsides, ditches, forest margins, and on hillsides. It spreads to natural areas, especially disturbed areas. I can disrupt native ecosystems by outcompeting native plants. It is ordinarily avoided by cattle and has been implicated in cattle poisoning. Beefsteak plants are most toxic if cut and dried for hay late in the summer, during seed production.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Foliage;
Jil Swearingen, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
John D. Byrd, Mississippi State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
John D. Byrd, Mississippi State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
John D. Byrd, Mississippi State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
John D. Byrd, Mississippi State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Chris Evans, University of Illinois, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Feature(s); leaf axil, in flower
Marisa Williams, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Feature(s); leaf axil
Marisa Williams, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Marisa Williams, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Marisa Williams, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage;
Marisa Williams, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Marisa Williams, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Antietam National Battlefield (Maryland)
Catoctin Mountain Park (Maryland)
Colonial National Historical Park (Virginia)
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (West Virginia)
Manassas National Battlefield Park (Virginia)
Monocacy National Battlefield Park (Maryland)
Rock Creek National Park (Washington, D.C.)
Shenandoah National Park (Virginia)
Stones River National Battlefield (Tennessee)



Invasive Listing Sources:
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994.
Eric Ulaszek, U.S. Forest Service, Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, Illinois
Faith Campbell, 1998
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
Maryland Cooperative Extension Service.  2003. Invasive Plant Control in Maryland. Home and Garden Information Center, Home and Garden Mimeo HG88. 4 pp.
Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1994
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Missouri Department of Conservation,
Virginia Invasive Plant Species List