tall vervain USDA PLANTS Symbol: VEBO
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Forbs/Herbs Forbs/Herbs
Verbena bonariensis L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Lamiales: Verbenaceae
Synonym(s): purpletop vervain
Native Range: South America (GRIN);

Appearance
Verbena bonariensis, Tall vervain is a rapidly growing, erect, clump forming perennial herb. The 3-6 ft. (0.9-1.8 m) tall stems are slender, hirsute, rough and square. Upright stems branch widely off the central stem. V. bonariensis may survive as an annual in colder climates as it readily self-seeds.
Foliage
Leaves of V. bonariensis are dark green. Most of the leaves are in a basal rosette. The stem leaves are opposite and the base of the leaf clasps the stem. Leaves are elliptic to lanceolate, ranging from 3-5 in. (7.6-12.7 cm) long with serrate margins.
Flowers
The small five petaled flowers of V. bonariensis are lavender to purple and are borne in cymes. They bloom all summer until the first frost.
Fruit
V. bonariensis fruits are nutlets. Each flower produces four seeds.
Ecological Threat
V. bonariensis is native to South America. It has escaped cultivation and become naturalized in disturbed areas across the southeastern United States and in California. It is drought and heat tolerant and is very common along roadsides and other disturbed areas. V. bonariensis is very similar to V. montevidensis and V. incompta and all three are invasive species.

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Stem(s); stem with opposite leaves clasping stem at base.
Joseph M. DiTomaso, University of California - Davis, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Stem(s); Tift County
Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage; Tift County
Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s); Tift County
Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Rebekah D. Wallace, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.


Invasive Listing Sources:
Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008