houndstongue USDA PLANTS Symbol: CYOF
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Forbs/Herbs
Cynoglossum officinale L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Lamiales: Boraginaceae
Synonym(s): gypsyflower
Native Range: Europe (BAIL);

Appearance
Cynoglossum officinale is a biennial plant that can grow from 8-48 in. (0.2-1.2 m) tall. The first year’s growth is strictly vegetative with flowering occurs the second year.
Foliage
The first year, the basal leaves are petiolate, elliptical, dark green and 6-8 in. (15.2-20.3 cm) long. The leaves on the flowering stem are alternate and narrower towards the top of the plant.
Flowers
In the early summer, flowers appear in racemes from the axils of the upper leaves. Flowers are reddish-purple with a five-lobed corolla.
Fruit
Each flower can produce up to 4 fruits. The fruits are nutlets, the surfaces of which are flat and densely covered with small, barbed hooks (glochidia) that facilitate dispersal by animals.
Ecological Threat
Cynoglossum officinale invades disturbed areas, roadsides, rangeland, old fields and meadows, forest margins, riparian zones and coastal sand dunes. It is native to Eurasia.

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Plant(s);
Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte, , Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte, , Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte, , Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte, , Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Kurt Stueber, Max-Planck-Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 3: 76.
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Joseph M. DiTomaso, University of California - Davis, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Grand Canyon National Park (Arizona)
Rocky Mountains National Park (Colorado)
Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming)



Invasive Listing Sources:
California Invasive Plant Council
Faith Campbell, 1998
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998