lesser celandine, fig buttercup USDA PLANTS Symbol: RAFI
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Forbs/Herbs
Ficaria verna Huds.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae
Synonym(s): lesser celandine, pilewort
Native Range: Eurasia ()

Ficaria verna is a short (up to 12 in. [30.5 cm]), herbaceous perennial that invades forests throughout the East, Midwest and Pacific Northwest regions of the United States.
The basal leaves are dark green, shiny, kidney- to heart-shaped and vary greatly in size.
Flowering occurs in March and April, when showy, bright yellow, eight-petaled flowers develop on stalks above the leaves. Flowers are up to 3 in. (7.6 cm) wide.
The fruit are achenes that are pubescent. It also reproduces with bulblets and tubers.
Ecological Threat
Ficaria verna invades moist, forested floodplains. It is a spring ephemeral and grows vigorously, creating dense mats that exclude all other vegetation. It is a threat particularly to the native forest spring ephemerals that have to compete for light and space with this invasive. The plant is native to Europe and was first introduced into the United States as an ornamental. It is currently sold and widely planted as an ornamental.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org

Flower(s); close-up
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Root(s); Bulbs
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 2: 117.
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org

State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park (Maryland, Washington, D.C., and West Virginia)
Colonial National Historical Park (Virginia)
George Washington Memorial Parkway (Virginia)
National Capital Parks East (Washington, D.C.)
Rock Creek National Park (Washington, D.C.)
Wolf Trap National Park (Virginia)

Invasive Listing Sources:
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994.
Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group
Delaware Natural Resources and Environmental Control, 2004
Faith Campbell, 1998
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
Maryland Cooperative Extension Service.  2003. Invasive Plant Control in Maryland. Home and Garden Information Center, Home and Garden Mimeo HG88. 4 pp.
Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1994
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
Pennypack Ecological Restoration Trust, Pennsylvania.
Tatyana Livschultz, Pennsylvania survey of invasive plants,
Virginia Invasive Plant Species List