cypress spurge USDA PLANTS Symbol: EUCY2
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Forbs/Herbs
Euphorbia cyparissias L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae
Native Range: Europe (BAIL);

Appearance
Euphorbia cyparissias grows up to 12 in. (30.5 cm) tall. This herbaceous, perennial plant invades open disturbed areas throughout the United States. All parts of the plant exude a white, milky sap when broken.
Foliage
The leaves are small, up to 1 in. (2.5 cm) long. The leaves are numerous, alternate or whorled, bright green, and linear in shape.
Flowers
Yellow-green, inconspicuous flowers are in a cyme at the top of the plant. Flowers mature to red.
Fruit
The fruit is three lobed and contains 1-3 egg shaped smooth gray seeds that measure 0.06-0.08 in. (1.5-2 mm). Euphorbia cyparissias produces large clonal colonies through an extensive underground root system, that allows this plant to reproduce with lateral root buds.
Ecological Threat
Euphorbia cyparissias can invade open disturbed areas such as fields, pastures, agricultural land, roadsides, and yards. It is toxic to livestock so infestations reduce the forage value of pastures and contaminates hayfields. It can form huge infestations displacing native vegetation. This plant is native to Europe and western Asia. It was first introduced into the United States in the mid 1800s as an ornamental.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Plant(s); in flower
Todd Pfeiffer, Klamath County Weed Control, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s); close up of fruiting structure
Richard A. Casagrande, University of Rhode Island, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); in flower
Todd Pfeiffer, Klamath County Weed Control, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Field;
Todd Pfeiffer, Klamath County Weed Control, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Root(s); Rhizomes
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 2: 474.
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.


Invasive Listing Sources:
Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group
Faith Campbell, 1998
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
Rhode Island Natural History Society,