African rue USDA PLANTS Symbol: PEHA
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Forbs/Herbs
Peganum harmala L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Sapindales: Zygophyllaceae
Synonym(s): harmal peganum, Syrian rue

Appearance
Peganum harmala is a perennial plant with a low-growing, bushy habit reaching 2-3 ft. (0.6-0.9 m) in height.
Foliage
Leaves are succulent, dark green in color, smooth, fleshy, alternate, irregularly divided, and from 0.8-2 in. (2-5 cm) long.
Flowers
The white, five-petal flowers have green sepals and yellow stamens. They are present from late spring to early fall in the axils of the leaves.
Fruit
Seeds are medium-size and found in a 2-celled or 4-celled green capsule that dries and bursts open at maturity. The plant also spreads by lateral roots.
Ecological Threat
P. harmala is found in disturbed environments such as roadsides and fields in desert to semi-desert areas. The plant is found in many western states and can be poisonous to people and livestock. P. harmala is native to Africa, temperate and tropical Asia and Europe.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Plant(s); plant with rootstalk.
Joseph M. DiTomaso, University of California - Davis, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
G.A. Cooper, USDA-PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Douglas Barbe, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s); fruit.
Joseph M. DiTomaso, University of California - Davis, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage; leaves.
Joseph M. DiTomaso, University of California - Davis, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Douglas Barbe, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Douglas Barbe, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); in flower
G.A. Cooper, USDA-PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.


Invasive Listing Sources:
Faith Campbell, 1998
Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998