birdsfoot trefoil USDA PLANTS Symbol: LOCO6
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Forbs/Herbs
Lotus corniculatus L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Fabales: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)
Synonym(s): birdfoot deervetch
Native Range: Europe, Asia (BAIL);

Birdsfoot trefoil is a low-growing, perennial forb with stems that can reach 2 ft. (0.6 m) long. Leaves are compound (with 5 oval to linear leaflets), stipulate and alternate. Leaflets (upper 3) are 0.5 in. (1.3 cm) long and less than 1/8 in. (0.3 cm) wide; the lower two resemble leaf-like stipules. Flowering occurs from May to August, when yellow, sweet pea-like flowers develop. Flowers develop in clusters of 2-8 on a long peduncle (stalk). Fruits are pods that occur in head-like clusters. Each pod is brown to black, cylindrical, 0.6-1.4 in. (1.5-3.5 cm) long, contains up to 49 seeds and has a persistent style at the apex. Birdsfoot trefoil is native to Eurasia and North Africa and occurs in pastures, roadsides, wetlands, disturbed grasslands and riparian areas.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Flower(s);
David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage;
Ohio State Weed Lab Archive, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Jan Samanek, State Phytosanitary Administration, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Jan Samanek, State Phytosanitary Administration, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service.
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 2: 359.
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Colonial National Historical Park (Virginia)



Invasive Listing Sources:
Eric Ulaszek, U.S. Forest Service, Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, Illinois
Faith Campbell, 1998
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Missouri Department of Conservation,
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, 2009