glossy buckthorn USDA PLANTS Symbol: FRAL4
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Shrub or Subshrub Hardwood Trees
Frangula alnus Mill.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Rhamnales: Rhamnaceae
Synonym(s): alder buckthorn, glossy false buckthorn, columnar buckthorn, fen buckthorn
Native Range: Europe, Western Asia, North Africa (REHD); Europe, No. Africa, Asia (BAIL);

Appearance
Frangula alnus is a large shrub or small tree that can grow to heights of 30 ft. (9.1 m). Its bark is gray to brown with white lenticels.
Foliage
The dark green leaves are shiny, alternate (sometime opposite) and simple with prominent venation.
Flowers
The flowers are inconspicuous, pale greenish-yellow to yellow in color and occur in clusters in the leaf axis. Flowering occurs from May through September.
Fruit
The fleshy fruit ripens from red to a dark purple or black color. You can see ripe fruit beginning about July through September.
Ecological Threat
Frangula alnus invades moist woodlands and disturbed areas throughout the Northeast and Midwest. Its rapid growth and prolific seed production make this plant an aggressive invader that can form dense thickets which shade and displace native understory plants, shrubs, and tree seedlings. This plant is native to Europe and was first introduced into the United States in the mid 1800s as an ornamental.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Plant(s);
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Gil Wojciech, Polish Forest Research Institute, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s); Frangula alnus (syn. Rhamnus frangula), glossy buckthorn columnar form
Rob Routledge, Sault College, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage;
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Tree(s); Vegetative buds pop out on a glossy buckthorn
William Fountain, University of Kentucky, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Stem(s);
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Foliage;
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage; Close-up of pinnately veined leaves
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage; Close-up of flowers and fruits
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s); November
Steve Manning, Invasive Plant Control, Bugwood.org
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Root(s);
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
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Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); 1. Flowering branchlet. - 2. Mature shoot with fruits in different ripening stages. - 3. Seedling with first ordinary leaves (germination is hypogeous). - 4. Stone viewed from different aspects. - 5. Winter-branchlet. Naked buds on spurs arranged in helical order. After Hempel & Wilhelm, 1889. Photos and explanations from the book: Zelimir Borzan. "Tree and Shrub Names in Latin, Croatian, English, and German, with synonyms", University of Zagreb, 2001.
Zelimir Borzan, University of Zagreb, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Acadia National Park (Maine)
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (Indiana)
Minute Man National Historical Park (Massachusetts)



Invasive Listing Sources:
City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994.
Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group
Faith Campbell, 1998
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society
Invasive Plant Council of New York State
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1994
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee. 2005. Guide to Invasive Upland Plant Species in New Hampshire. New Hampshire Department of Agriculture,  Markets and Food Plant Industry Division and New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee.
New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
Reichard, Sarah. 1994.  Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
Rhode Island Natural History Society,
Tatyana Livschultz, Pennsylvania survey of invasive plants,
Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation