lily of the valley USDA PLANTS Symbol: COMA7
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Forbs/Herbs
Convallaria majalis L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Liliopsida: Liliales: Liliaceae
Synonym(s): lily of the valley
Native Range: Europe (BAIL);

Convallaria majalis is a perennial herbaceous rhizomatous plant that grows up to 12 in (30 cm) tall. It is native to Asia and Europe. Some sources list it as nonnative to North America and others list it as native.
The paired leaves are long elliptics growing up to 16.7 in (50 cm) long. Leaves are deciduous.
The bell like dainty white flowers are held on erect racemes and have a strong, sweet perfume and bloom in the spring.
The fruits are red berries.
Ecological Threat
C. majalis spreads quickly because of rhizomes which can form extensive colonies. It can tolerate full sun to full shade but prefers partial shade. Rich well drained moist soil is its preference. It has been planted extensively as an ornamental. Where it has escaped cultivation and spread into natural areas it can be invasive. It can spread by seed and rhizomes.

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Plant(s); common plant of mixed and broadleaved forests. Up to 30 cm in height. Flowers from May to June. Poland
Gil Wojciech, Polish Forest Research Institute,
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Flower(s); Taken June 1975
Harlan B. Herbert, ,
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EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit

State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

Invasive Listing Sources:
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.