yellow toadflax USDA PLANTS Symbol: LIVU2
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Forbs/Herbs
Linaria vulgaris P. Mill.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Scrophulariales: Scrophulariaceae
Synonym(s): butter and eggs, Jacob's ladder, wild snapdragon
Native Range: Europe and Asia (BAIL);

Yellow toadflax is a perennial herb that can reach 3.3 ft. (1 m) tall. Leaves are nearly sessile, drooping, linear and 1-2 in. (2.5-5 cm) long. Leaves can sometimes be sparsely covered by long hairs. Flowering occurs from May to September, when yellow/white, snapdragon-like flowers develop. Flowers, including the spur, are 0.6-1.2 in. (1.5-3 cm) long and occur in racemes at the apex of the stems. Fruits are capsules that are 0.4-0.5 in. (9-12 mm) long. Each capsule contains small, flat seeds with a papery wing. Yellow toadflax is native to Europe and was introduced into North America, as an ornamental, in the mid 1600s. Plants occur in fields, pastures, roadsides, undisturbed prairies and rangelands.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Plant(s); in flower
Linda Wilson, University of Idaho, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s);
Michael Shephard, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Foliage; view from above
John Cardina, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org
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Fruit(s);
John Cardina, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); side view of clump of plants in flower
Dave Powell, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s); Montana
Wendy VanDyk Evans, , Bugwood.org
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Flower(s);
Caleb Slemmons, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s);
Elizabeth Bella, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s);
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
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Root(s); Roots
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); Field of flowers, Routt NF, CO
William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
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Seedling(s); Along with dandelion rosettes
Elizabeth Bella, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Fruit(s); fruit and seeds
Ken Chamberlain, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org
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Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 3: 177.
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Glacier National Park (Montana)
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (West Virginia)
Rocky Mountains National Park (Colorado)
Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming)



Invasive Listing Sources:
California Invasive Plant Council
City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation
Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
Faith Campbell, 1998
Forest Service-Alaska, 2004
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998