Brazilian peppertree USDA PLANTS Symbol: SCTE
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Hardwood Trees Shrub or Subshrub
Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Sapindales: Anacardiaceae
Synonym(s): Christmas berry, Florida holly,Brazillian pepper, schinus
Native Range: Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay ()

Brazilian peppertree is a broadleaved, evergreen shrub or small tree that invades natural and disturbed areas in Hawaii, Florida, Texas and California. Plants can grow to 30 ft. (9 m) tall. The alternate, dark green leaves are pinnately compound and slightly toothed along leaflet margins. Leaflets are opposite along a (usually) winged rachis and 1-2 in. (2.5-5.1 cm) long. Leaves smell strongly of pepper or turpentine when crushed. Trees are dioecious with clusters of small, white, 5-petaled flowers developing in the leaf axils of young stems. Trees flower year-round, but flowers are most concentrated in the fall. Fruit are small, bright red berries. Brazilian peppertree invades a variety of habitats including old fields, forests, hammocks, ditches, and wetlands. It forms dense thickets that displace native vegetation. Brazilian peppertree is native to South America and was first introduced into the United States in the 1840s as an ornamental.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Infestation;
Amy Ferriter, State of Idaho, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage;
Amy Ferriter, State of Idaho, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Amy Ferriter, State of Idaho, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Amy Ferriter, State of Idaho, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Dan Clark, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Seedling(s);
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s); fruit
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Dan Clark, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage; with fruit
Dan Clark, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage;
Rebekah D. Wallace, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
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Foliage; Leaf underside
Rebekah D. Wallace, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s);
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); habit
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Tree(s); habit
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation;
Ann Murray, University of Florida, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation;
Randy Westbrooks, Invasive Species Prevention Specialist, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Big Cypress National Preserve (Florida)
Everglades National Park (Florida)
Haleakala National Park (Hawaii)



Invasive Listing Sources:
Archbold Biological Station
California Invasive Plant Council
Faith Campbell, 1998
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
National  Wildlife Refuge Association, Silent Invasion: A Call to Action from the National Wildlife Refuge Association, 2002. Washington DC. 17 pp.
Reichard, Sarah. 1994.  Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
University of Hawaii, Botany Department, Hawaiian Alien Plant Studies, 1998