Eurasian water-milfoil USDA PLANTS Symbol: MYSP2
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Aquatic Forbs/Herbs
Myriophyllum spicatum L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Haloragales: Haloragaceae
Synonym(s): spiked watermilfoil
Native Range: N. Amer., Europe, N. Asia, N. Africa ()

Eurasian watermilfoil is a submersed aquatic plant that invades lakes, ponds, and other aquatic environments throughout the United States. The plants are rooted and the stems grow up to the water surface, usually reaching 3 to 10 ft. (0.9-3 m) in length, however they can be as much as 30 ft. (9.1 m) long. Eurasian watermilfoil forms dense mats of bright green, finely dissected, whorled leaves. The delicate leaflets give this plant a feathery appearance. Eurasian watermilfoil requires stagnant to slowly moving water and can tolerate brackish conditions. Once established the dense mats of leaves restrict light availability, leading to a decline in the diversity and abundance of native macrophytes. In addition, Eurasian watermilfoil displaces the native species of watermilfoil and reduces habitats for fish spawning and feeding. Eurasian watermilfoil is native to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. It was accidentally introduced into the United States sometime between the late 1800s and 1940s.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Infestation;
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); Native to Africa, and Europe, invades lakes, ponds, and other water bodies throughout the United States.
Alison Fox, University of Florida, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s); Inflorescence
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
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Foliage;
Graves Lovell, Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bugwood.org
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Foliage;
Graves Lovell, Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s);
Graves Lovell, Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); a submersed aquatic plant at Cornell University Research Ponds
Robert L. Johnson, Cornell University, Bugwood.org
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Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 2: 614.
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Colonial National Historical Park (Virginia)
Lake Mead National Park (Nevada)



Invasive Listing Sources:
Alabama Invasive Plant Council
California Invasive Plant Council
City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994.
Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group
Delaware Natural Resources and Environmental Control, 2004
Faith Campbell, 1998
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council
Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Invasive Plant Council of New York State
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee. 2005. Guide to Invasive Upland Plant Species in New Hampshire. New Hampshire Department of Agriculture,  Markets and Food Plant Industry Division and New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee.
New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998
Pennypack Ecological Restoration Trust, Pennsylvania.
Tatyana Livschultz, Pennsylvania survey of invasive plants,
Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council
Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, 2009