European privet USDA PLANTS Symbol: LIVU
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Shrub or Subshrub
Ligustrum vulgare L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Scrophulariales: Oleaceae
Synonym(s): wild privet
Native Range: Europe, N. Africa (REHD); Medit. reg (BAIL);

Appearance
Ligustrum vulgare is a semi-evergreen shrub or small tree that grows to 20 ft. (6.1 m) in height. Trunks usually occur as multiple stems with many long, leafy branches.
Foliage
Leaves are opposite, lanceolate, 1-2.4 in. (2.5-6 cm) long and 0.2-0.6 in. (0.5-1.5 cm) wide.
Flowers
Flowering occurs from April to June, when panicles of white to cream flowers develop in terminal and upper axillary clusters. Pollen can cause an allergic reaction in some people.
Fruit
The abundant fruits are spherical, 0.3-0.05 in. (1-1.3 cm) long. Fruit begins green and ripens to a dark purple to black color and persists into winter. Birds and wildlife eat the fruit and disperse the seeds. Seed soil viability is about one year. It also colonizes by root sprouts.
Ecological Threat
Ligustrums can tolerate a wide range of conditions. They form dense thickets invading fields, fencerows, roadsides, forest understories, and riparian sites. They can shade out and exclude native understory species, perhaps even reduce tree recruitment. Native to Europe and Asia, they are commonly used as ornamental shrubs and for hedgerows.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Plant(s);
Nava Tabak, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Nava Tabak, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Nava Tabak, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Nava Tabak, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage;
Nava Tabak, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage; sprout
Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Dow Gardens , Dow Gardens, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s); foliage
Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); early in season
Mark Frey, The Presidio Trust , Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 2: 729.
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Appomattox Court House National Historical Park (Virginia)
Colonial National Historical Park (Virginia)
Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park (Virginia)
George Washington Birthplace National Monument (Virginia)
Gettysburg National Military Park (Pennsylvania)
Great Smoky Mountains National Park (North Carolina & Tennessee)
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (West Virginia)
Kings Mountain National Military Park (South Carolina)
National Capital Parks East (Washington, D.C.)
Petersburg National Battlefield (Virginia)
Richmond National Battlefield Park (Virginia)
Shenandoah National Park (Virginia)



Invasive Listing Sources:
City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994.
Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group
Delaware Natural Resources and Environmental Control, 2004
Faith Campbell, 1998
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
Pennypack Ecological Restoration Trust, Pennsylvania.
Reichard, Sarah. 1994.  Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
Tatyana Livschultz, Pennsylvania survey of invasive plants,
Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council