English ivy USDA PLANTS Symbol: HEHE
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Vines
Hedera helix L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Apiales: Araliaceae
Native Range: Europe to Caucasus (REHD); Europe, w. Asia, No. Africa (BAIL);

Appearance
Hedera helix is an evergreen perennial climbing vine that attaches to bark of trees, brickwork and other surfaces by root-like structures that exude a glue-like substance to aid in adherence.
Foliage
Leaves are alternate, dark green, waxy, somewhat leathery; extremely variable leaf forms, from unlobed to 3-5 lobed; typically green with whitish veins.
Flowers
Flowering occurs in late summer to early fall, typically under full sun conditions; flowers are small, greenish-yellow and occur in globular starburst type inflorescence at tips of flowering stems.
Fruit
Fruits are black with a fleshy outer layer and stone-like seeds. New plants grow easily from cuttings or stem fragments that make contact with the soil.
Ecological Threat
Hedera helix is an aggressive invader threatening all levels of forested and open areas, growing along the ground as well as into the forest canopy. Vines climb up tree trunks and envelop branches and twigs, blocking sunlight from the host tree’s foliage, impeding photosynthesis. An infested tree will exhibit decline for years before it dies. The weight of vines also makes trees susceptible to blowing over in storms. This plant has been confirmed as a reservoir for bacterial leaf scorch (Xylella fastidiosa), which affects a wide variety of trees.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Flower(s); bee visiting flowers
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Twig(s)/Shoot(s); young stem in July
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s); fruits
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s); July
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s); in January
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Twig(s)/Shoot(s); July
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage; Foliage climbing pine tree in September
Chuck Bargeron, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage; leaves in July
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation;
Chris Evans, University of Illinois, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation;
Chris Evans, University of Illinois, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation;
Chris Evans, University of Illinois, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Feature(s); Vine
Chris Evans, University of Illinois, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation; Invading roadside park in September
Chuck Bargeron, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage; leaves
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation;
Nancy Dagley, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation;
Nancy Dagley, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park (Maryland, Washington, D.C., and West Virginia)
Colonial National Historical Park (Virginia)
Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park (Virginia)
George Washington Birthplace National Monument (Virginia)
George Washington Memorial Parkway (Virginia)
Great Smoky Mountains National Park (North Carolina & Tennessee)
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (West Virginia)
Kings Mountain National Military Park (South Carolina)
National Capital Parks East (Washington, D.C.)
Petersburg National Battlefield (Virginia)
Redwood National Park (California)
Rock Creek National Park (Washington, D.C.)
Shenandoah National Park (Virginia)
Stones River National Battlefield (Tennessee)
Vicksburg National Military Park (Mississippi)
Yosemite National Park (California)



Invasive Listing Sources:
Alabama Invasive Plant Council
California Invasive Plant Council
Delaware Natural Resources and Environmental Control, 2004
Faith Campbell, 1998
Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council
Maryland Cooperative Extension Service.  2003. Invasive Plant Control in Maryland. Home and Garden Information Center, Home and Garden Mimeo HG88. 4 pp.
Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1994
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 1998
Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998
Pennypack Ecological Restoration Trust, Pennsylvania.
Reichard, Sarah. 1994.  Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
Rhode Island Natural History Society,
South Carolina Exotic Pest Plant Council
Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council
Virginia Invasive Plant Species List