autumn olive USDA PLANTS Symbol: ELUM
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Shrub or Subshrub
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Rhamnales: Elaeagnaceae
Synonym(s): autumn olive, oleaster, silverberry
Native Range: China, Korea, Japan (REHD); China, Japan, Himalayas (BAIL);

Autumn olive is a deciduous shrub from 3-20 ft. (0.9-6.1 m) in height. It is easily recognized by the silvery, dotted underside of the leaves. Leaves are alternate and 1 in. (2.5 cm) wide. Small, yellowish flowers are abundant and occur in clusters near the stems in May to June. Fruits are red, juicy, and edible. Fruits ripen from September to November. Autumn olive invades old fields, woodland edges, and other disturbed areas. It can form a dense shrub layer which displaces native species and closes open areas. Autumn olive is native to China and Japan and was introduced into North America in 1830. Since then, it has been widely planted for wildlife habitat, mine reclamation, and shelterbelts.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Flower(s); in May
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Bark; branch bark in April
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Bark; with older stem bark starting to flake in December
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s);
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
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Foliage; Shiny, silvery underside of a leaf. Appears to be covered in small dots when examined closely.
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s);
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
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Twig(s)/Shoot(s); April
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Foliage; April
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Fruit(s);
Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources - Forestry Archive, , Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
David J. Moorhead, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s);
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
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Fruit(s);
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
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Feature(s); Nitrogen-fixing nodules
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s);
Nancy Loewenstein, Auburn University, Bugwood.org
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Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s); in May
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Blue Ridge Parkway (North Carolina)
Booker T Washington National Monument (Virginia)
Colonial National Historical Park (Virginia)
Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (Pennsylvania)
Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park (Virginia)
George Washington Birthplace National Monument (Virginia)
Gettysburg National Military Park (Pennsylvania)
Great Smoky Mountains National Park (North Carolina & Tennessee)
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (Indiana)
Manassas National Battlefield Park (Virginia)
Petersburg National Battlefield (Virginia)
Richmond National Battlefield Park (Virginia)
Rock Creek National Park (Washington, D.C.)
Shenandoah National Park (Virginia)



Invasive Listing Sources:
Alabama Invasive Plant Council
City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994.
Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group
Delaware Natural Resources and Environmental Control, 2004
Faith Campbell, 1998
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council
Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society
Invasive Plant Council of New York State
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council
Maryland Cooperative Extension Service.  2003. Invasive Plant Control in Maryland. Home and Garden Information Center, Home and Garden Mimeo HG88. 4 pp.
Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1994
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Missouri Department of Conservation,
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee. 2005. Guide to Invasive Upland Plant Species in New Hampshire. New Hampshire Department of Agriculture,  Markets and Food Plant Industry Division and New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee.
New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 1998
Pennypack Ecological Restoration Trust, Pennsylvania.
Reichard, Sarah. 1994.  Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
Rhode Island Natural History Society,
South Carolina Exotic Pest Plant Council
Tatyana Livschultz, Pennsylvania survey of invasive plants,
Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council
University of Hawaii, Botany Department, Hawaiian Alien Plant Studies, 1998
Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, 2009