garlic mustard USDA PLANTS Symbol: ALPE4
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Forbs/Herbs
Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Capparales: Brassicaceae
Synonym(s): garlic-mustard, hedge garlic, sauce-alone, jack-by-the hedge, poor man's mustard, jack-n-the-bush, garlic root, garlicwort, mustard root
Native Range: Africa, temp. & trop. Asia, Europe (GRIN);

Garlic mustard is an herbaceous, biennial forb that is an aggressive invader of wooded areas throughout the eastern and middle United States. First-year plants are basal rosettes with green, heart-shaped, 1-6 in. (2.5-15.2 cm) long leaves. Second-year plants produce a 1-4 ft. (0.3-1.2 m) tall flowering stalk with small, white flowers in the early spring. Plants can be easily recognized by a garlic odor that is present when any part of the plant is crushed and by the strongly toothed, triangular leaves. A high shade tolerance allows this plant to invade high-quality, mature woodlands, where it can form dense stands. These stands not only shade out native understory flora but also produce allelopathic compounds that inhibit seed germination of other species. Garlic mustard is native to Europe and was first introduced into New England during the 1800s for medicinal and culinary purposes.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Infestation;
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage; first year leaves
Jil Swearingen, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); in flower
David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); 1st year rosette
Tom Heutte, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); in flower
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage; 1st-year basal rosette. Clayton County, IA
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s); Long,thin, upright seed pods (siliques). Martin County, KY
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); in flower
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation;
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); in flower
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Control; After control. Part of a before/after volunteer hand-pull control series. See image #2132001 for before image
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Control; Before control. Part of a before/after volunteer hand-pull control series. See image #2131100 for after image
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation; Understory incursion
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

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U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Acadia National Park (Maine)
Antietam National Battlefield (Maryland)
Blue Ridge Parkway (North Carolina)
Catoctin Mountain Park (Maryland)
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park (Maryland, Washington, D.C., and West Virginia)
Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (Pennsylvania)
George Washington Memorial Parkway (Virginia)
Great Smoky Mountains National Park (North Carolina & Tennessee)
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (West Virginia)
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (Indiana)
Manassas National Battlefield Park (Virginia)
Minute Man National Historical Park (Massachusetts)
Monocacy National Battlefield Park (Maryland)
National Capital Parks East (Washington, D.C.)
Rock Creek National Park (Washington, D.C.)
Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway (Wisconsin)
Shenandoah National Park (Virginia)
Stones River National Battlefield (Tennessee)
Weir Farm National Historical Park (Connecticut)



Invasive Listing Sources:
Alabama Invasive Plant Council
City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994.
Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group
Delaware Natural Resources and Environmental Control, 2004
Faith Campbell, 1998
Forest Service-Alaska, 2004
Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society
Invasive Plant Council of New York State
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council
Maryland Cooperative Extension Service.  2003. Invasive Plant Control in Maryland. Home and Garden Information Center, Home and Garden Mimeo HG88. 4 pp.
Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1994
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Missouri Department of Conservation,
National  Wildlife Refuge Association, Silent Invasion: A Call to Action from the National Wildlife Refuge Association, 2002. Washington DC. 17 pp.
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee. 2005. Guide to Invasive Upland Plant Species in New Hampshire. New Hampshire Department of Agriculture,  Markets and Food Plant Industry Division and New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee.
New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
Pennypack Ecological Restoration Trust, Pennsylvania.
South Carolina Exotic Pest Plant Council
Tatyana Livschultz, Pennsylvania survey of invasive plants,
Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council
Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, 2009