greater celandine USDA PLANTS Symbol: CHMA2
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Forbs/Herbs
Chelidonium majus L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Papaverales: Papaveraceae
Native Range: Europe, Asia (BAIL);

Appearance
Chelidonium majus is a brittle, herbaceous biennial that reaches 11-31 in. (30-80 cm) in height. Its stems are ribbed and branching. The lower parts of the branches are pubescent. When the branches or leaves are broken a yellowish-orange sap can be seen.
Foliage
The alternate cauline leaves can be up to 13 in. (35 cm) in length, with petioles measuring 0.75-4 in. (2-10 cm) long. The thin leaf blades are glaucous beneath, deeply 5-9 lobed and are irregularly dentate around the margins. The veins of the lower leaf surfaces have fine, short hairs.
Flowers
The bright yellow flowers are contained in axillary pedunculate umbels. The peduncle itself measures 0.75-4 in. (2-10 cm) long. Each flower has four obovate to oblong petals that measure about 0.4 in. (1 cm) wide. This plant usually flowers from May to June.
Fruit
The "lumpy" capsules are linear to oblong-shaped and measure 0.75-2 in. (2-5 cm) in length. Within the capsule are black seeds with reticulate pitting on their surface.
Ecological Threat
Chelidonium majus can become abundant in minimally managed habitats and can outcompete other native herbaceous plants. It is most often found in disturbed areas especially with moist soil. Conceivably its seeds could be moved to other habitats by ants.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Plant(s);
Stacey Leicht, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Stacey Leicht, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation;
Stacey Leicht, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Feature(s); Broken stem with orange sap
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 2: 141.
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Antietam National Battlefield (Maryland)
Monocacy National Battlefield Park (Maryland)



Invasive Listing Sources:
Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
Faith Campbell, 1998
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation