Spanish broom USDA PLANTS Symbol: SPJU2
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Shrub or Subshrub
Spartium junceum L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Fabales: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)
Synonym(s): weaver's broom
Native Range: Meditteranean region & Canary Islands (REHD);

Appearance
Spartium junceum is a perennial shrub, that can grow up to 9.8 ft. (3 m) high. It has thick waxy stems.
Foliage
Spanish broom has long, slender, leafless or few-leaved, green branches. The shrub is virgately branched and contains no spines, unlike gorse (Ulex europaeus). The alternate leaves are simple, entire and more or less strigose, having short petioles. The narrower leaves are 0.4-1.2 in. (1-3 cm) long.
Flowers
The fragrant yellow flowers are borne in loose terminal racemes, unlike those of Cytisus scoparius which are usually solitary in the axils. Individual flowers are 0.8-1 in. (2-2.5 cm) long.
Fruit
Seeds can remain viable in soil for more than 80 years.
Ecological Threat
S. junceum is adapted to dryer sites where its lack of leaves and thick waxy stems resist dessication. Like other broom species, it offers strong competition to other plants and contributes to increased maintenance costs on lands where it becomes established. Dry summer plants create a severe fire hazard.

General Description:The following description of Spartium junceum is adapted from Munz and Keck (1973).

Spartium junceum is a perennial shrub, up to 3 m high, with long, slender, leafless or few-leaved, green, rushlike branchlets. The shrub is virgately branched and contains no spines, unlike gorse (Ulex europaeus). The alternate leaves are simple, entire and more or less strigose, having short petioles. The oblance-oblong or narrower leaves are 1-3 cm long.

The fragrant yellow flowers are borne in loose terminal racemes, unlike those of Cytisus scoparius which are usually solitary in the axils. Individual flowers are 2-2.5 cm long. The banner and keel are longer than the wings, and the keel is pubescent along its lower edge. The calyx is split above, hence one-lipped, with 5 minute teeth. This may be contrasted with the two-lipped calyx of Cytisus monspessulanus. The stamens are monadelphous (united by their filaments forming a tube around the gynoecium).

The linear pods are 5-10 cm long, more or less strigose, compressed, and many seeded. Each seed has a basal strophiole (appendage at the hilum).

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Plant(s); Single bush
John M. Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation; More invading bushes
John M. Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Barry Rice, sarracenia.com, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Barry Rice, sarracenia.com, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Barry Rice, sarracenia.com, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
John M. Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s); Young fruit
John M. Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s); Flowers close-up
John M. Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (Californina)



Invasive Listing Sources:
California Invasive Plant Council
Faith Campbell, 1998
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
Reichard, Sarah. 1994.  Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.