English holly USDA PLANTS Symbol: ILAQ80
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Hardwood Trees Shrub or Subshrub
Ilex aquifolium L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Celastrales: Aquifoliaceae
Native Range: Europe, No. Afr., and West. Asia (BAIL);

Ilex aquifolium is a large evergreen tree or shrub that can grow from 15-50 ft. (4.6-15.2 m) tall. Bark is smooth and can be grey to black in color.
Leaves are alternate, thick, dark green, glossy, wavy, 1-3 in. (2.5-7.6 cm) long with sharp stout spines.
Flowers are small, white, fragrant, and found in clusters. The blooming period occurs in late Spring and early summer from May to June.
The berries are bright red to orange and yellow in color and 0.31 in. (8 mm) across. Each berry contains 4 seeds. Fruit ripens from August to October.
Ecological Threat
Ilex aquifolium can grow in shaded or sunny areas and is often found in forests. It is native to south and central Europe.

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org

Plant(s); fruiting
Joseph M. DiTomaso, University of California - Davis, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org

State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Monocacy National Battlefield Park (Maryland)
Redwood National Park (California)
Yosemite National Park (California)

Invasive Listing Sources:
California Invasive Plant Council
Faith Campbell, 1998
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998
Reichard, Sarah. 1994.  Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.