Listing Sources

Alabama Invasive Plant Council
Alaska Exotic Plant Information Clearinghouse
Ann F Rhoads, Morris Arboretum, Pennsylvania
Archbold Biological Station
Arizona Native Plant Society
California Department of Fish and Game
California Invasive Plant Council
City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994.
Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group
Delaware Invasive Species Council
Delaware Natural Resources and Environmental Control, 2004
Eric Ulaszek, U.S. Forest Service, Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, Illinois
Faith Campbell, 1998
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council
Forest Service-Alaska, 2004
Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council
Gulf of Mexico Regional Panel, Aquatic Nuisance Species Annual Report, 2001
Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk 2006.
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society
Invaders Database System, University of Montana
Invasive Plant Association of Wisconsin
Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, 2006
Invasive Plant Council of New York State
Jackie Poole, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (personal communication)
James Akerson, Shenandoah National Park (personal communication), 2003.
Jeff Quayle, personal communication, 2003.
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
Jil Swearingen, personal communication, 2009-2016
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Karen Enyedy, personal communication, 2002
Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, 2001
Lou Wagner, personal communication, 2005
Maryland Cooperative Extension Service.  2003. Invasive Plant Control in Maryland. Home and Garden Information Center, Home and Garden Mimeo HG88. 4 pp.
Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1994
Maryland Invasive Species Council
Michigan Invasive Plant Council
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Midwest Invasive Plant Network
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1998
Missouri Department of Conservation,
National  Wildlife Refuge Association, Silent Invasion: A Call to Action from the National Wildlife Refuge Association, 2002. Washington DC. 17 pp.
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. 2002. Version 1.6 . Arlington, Virginia, USA: NatureServe. Available:
New England Wild Flower Society
New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee. 2005. Guide to Invasive Upland Plant Species in New Hampshire. New Hampshire Department of Agriculture,  Markets and Food Plant Industry Division and New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee.
New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 1998
North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve.
Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998
Pennypack Ecological Restoration Trust, Pennsylvania.
Reichard, Sarah. 1994.  Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
Rhode Island Natural History Society,
Rodney Bartgiss, The Nature Conservancy (personal communication), 2002
South Carolina Exotic Pest Plant Council
Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2001.
Sue Salmons, personal communication, 2009
Tatyana Livschultz, Pennsylvania survey of invasive plants,
Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council
Tim Morton, personal communication, 2009
Union of Concerned Scientists
University of Hawaii, Botany Department, Hawaiian Alien Plant Studies, 1998
Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation
Virginia Invasive Plant Species List
West Virginia Native Plant Society, Flora West Virginia Project, and West Virginia Curatorial Database System, September 3, 1999
Wunderlin, R.P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 806 pp.

Native Range and Taxonomic References

BAILBailey, L.H. and E.Z. Bailey, Hortus Third: A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada, MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York , (1977).
GRINAgricultural Research Service, Germplasm Resources Information Network
HICKHickman, J.C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 1400 pp.
MABBDJ Mabberley, The Plant Book: A Portable Dictionary of the higher plants, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA 1989.
FONAFlora of North America
KARTKartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
MANSMansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops,
REHDAlfred Rehder, Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs: Hardy in North America (Exclusive of the subtropical and warmer temperate regions), 2nd edition, 11th printing, The MacMillan Co., New York (1967)
NRCSU.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Plants Database

National Park Sources

ACADAcadia National Park (Maine)
ANTIAntietam National Battlefield (Maryland)
APCOAppomattox Court House National Historical Park (Virginia)
BADLBadlands National Park (South Dakota)
BICYBig Cypress National Preserve (Florida)
BLRIBlue Ridge Parkway (North Carolina)
BOWABooker T Washington National Monument (Virginia)
CATOCatoctin Mountain Park (Maryland)
CHIRChiricahua National Monument (Arizona)
CHOHChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park (Maryland, Washington, D.C., and West Virginia)
COLOColonial National Historical Park (Virginia)
CRMOCraters of the Moon National Monument (Idaho)
DETODevils Tower National Monument (Wyoming)
DEVADeath Valley National Park (California)
DEWADelaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (Pennsylvania)
DINODinosaur National Monument (Colorado)
DRTODry Tortugas
EISEEisenhower National Historic Site (Pennsylvania)
EVEREverglades National Park (Florida)
FOBOFort Bowie National Historic Site (Arizona)
FRSPFredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park (Virginia)
GETTGettysburg National Military Park (Pennsylvania)
GEWAGeorge Washington Birthplace National Monument (Virginia)
GLACGlacier National Park (Montana)
GLCAGlen Canyon National Recreation Area (Utah)
GRCAGrand Canyon National Park (Arizona)
GRSMGreat Smoky Mountains National Park (North Carolina & Tennessee)
GWMPGeorge Washington Memorial Parkway (Virginia)
HAFEHarpers Ferry National Historical Park (West Virginia)
HALEHaleakala National Park (Hawaii)
INDUIndiana Dunes National Lakeshore (Indiana)
KIMOKings Mountain National Military Park (South Carolina)
LAMELake Mead National Park (Nevada)
LAMRLake Meredith National Recreation Area (Texas)
MANAManassas National Battlefield Park (Virginia)
MIMAMinute Man National Historical Park (Massachusetts)
MONOMonocacy National Battlefield Park (Maryland)
NACCNational Capital Parks Central (Washington, D.C.)
NACENational Capital Parks East (Washington, D.C.)
ORPIOrgan Pipe National Monument (Arizona)
PETEPetersburg National Battlefield (Virginia)
PRESPresidio National Park (California)
PRWIPrince William Forest Park (Virginia)
REDWRedwood National Park (California)
RICHRichmond National Battlefield Park (Virginia)
ROCRRock Creek National Park (Washington, D.C.)
ROMORocky Mountains National Park (Colorado)
SAANSan Antonio Missions National Historical Park (Texas)
SACNSaint Croix National Scenic Riverway (Wisconsin)
SCBLScotts Bluff National Monument (Nebraska)
SEKISequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (Californina)
SHENShenandoah National Park (Virginia)
STRIStones River National Battlefield (Tennessee)
THROTheodore Roosevelt National Park (North Dakota)
THSTThomas Stone National Historic Site (Maryland)
VICKVicksburg National Military Park (Mississippi)
WEFAWeir Farm National Historical Park (Connecticut)
WOTRWolf Trap National Park (Virginia)
WUPAWupatki National Monument (Arizona)
YELLYellowstone National Park (Wyoming)
YOSEYosemite National Park (California)